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Provide custom data source and enabling filtering to DropDownList

You can provide data source to the DropDownList by using params property of Edit in Column.

While setting new data source using edit params, you must specify a new query property too for the DropDownList as follows,

@{
    var DropDownList = new Syncfusion.EJ2.DropDowns.DropDownList() { DataSource = ViewBag.DropDownData, Query = "new ej.data.Query()", Fields = new Syncfusion.EJ2.DropDowns.DropDownListFieldSettings() { Value = "Country", Text = "Country" }, AllowFiltering = true, ActionComplete="actionComplete" };
}
{
    col.Field("ShipName").HeaderText("ShipName").Width("150").EditType("dropdownedit").Edit(new { @params = DropDownList }).Add();
}

You can also enable filtering for the DropDownList by passing the allowFiltering as true to the edit params.

In the below demo, DropDownList is rendered with custom Datasource for the ShipCountry column and enabled filtering to search DropDownList items.

razor
edit-dropdownlist.cs
@{
    var DropDownList = new Syncfusion.EJ2.DropDowns.DropDownList() { DataSource = ViewBag.DropDownData, Query = "new ej.data.Query()", AllowFiltering = true, Fields = new Syncfusion.EJ2.DropDowns.DropDownListFieldSettings() { Value = "Country", Text = "Country" } };
}

@Html.EJS().Grid("Grid").DataSource((IEnumerable<object>)ViewBag.DataSource).Columns(col =>
{
    col.Field("OrderID").HeaderText("Order ID").IsPrimaryKey(true).Width("120").TextAlign(Syncfusion.EJ2.Grids.TextAlign.Right).Add();
    col.Field("CustomerID").HeaderText("Customer Name").Width("150").Add();
    col.Field("Freight").HeaderText("Freight").Width("120").Format("C2").TextAlign(Syncfusion.EJ2.Grids.TextAlign.Right).Add();
    col.Field("ShipName").HeaderText("Ship Name").Width("150").Add();
    col.Field("ShipCountry").HeaderText("Ship Country").Width("150").EditType("dropdownedit").Edit(new { @params = DropDownList }).Add();

}).AllowPaging().EditSettings(edit => { edit.AllowAdding(true).AllowEditing(true).AllowDeleting(true).Mode(Syncfusion.EJ2.Grids.EditMode.Normal); }).Toolbar(new List<string>() { "Add", "Edit", "Delete", "Update", "Cancel" }).Render()
public IActionResult Index()
{
    ViewBag.DataSource = OrderDetails.GetAllRecords();
    ViewBag.DropDownData = DropDownDetails.GetAllRecords();
    return View();
}